コンスピリチュアリティ - 「ニューエイジ」と「陰謀論」における「信念の重複」

Hatena Feedly


「コンスピリチュアリティ」- 「ニューエイジ」と「陰謀論」における「信念の重複」




I want to talk about trying to make sense when things are breaking down.


The last few weeks, we’ve seen some conspiracy theories blooming out of the anxiety of the lockdown.


Sports-presenter turned conspiracy-theorist David Icke took centre-stage in April, appearing in a video for London Real, in which he suggested COVID19 was caused by 5G (perhaps as part of the global plot run by a secret order of alien lizards, which Icke has consistently described). The video was watched millions of times on YouTube and on LondonLive before YouTube and Ofcom stepped in to get it taken down.

 スポーツ記者から陰謀論者に転身したデイビッド・アイク氏は、4月にLondon Realの動画に登場し、COVID-19は5G (5Gはおそらく、アイク氏が一貫して述べてきたように、爬虫類型人類のエイリアンが秘密裏に操っている世界規模の陰謀の一環だろう)が原因だと示唆した。このビデオはYouTubeとLondonLiveで何百万回も視聴された後、YouTubeとOfcomが介入して削除された。



The same week, a documentary appeared called Out of Shadows, recycling the 2016 ‘Pizzagate’ conspiracy theory that a secret order of Democrats and Hollywood celebrities run a paedophile ring centred on two Washington pizza restaurants. The documentary got two million views in a day. 

 同じ週にドキュメンタリー「アウト・オブ・シャドウズ(Out of Shadows)」が登場しました。2016年の陰謀論ピザゲート」を再利用したものです。民主党とハリウッドセレブの秘密結社がワシントンのピザレストラン2店舗を中心に、小児性愛者の組織を運営しているというものです。このドキュメンタリーは1日で200万回再生されました。



We’ve also seen a conspiracy theory that COVID19 is part of a plot led by Bill Gates and the World Health Organisation to get the world to take his vaccine and implant his chip surveillance. Conspiracy theorists like Alex Jones of Infowars have claimed for over a decade that Gates’ huge funding for vaccines is actually a eugenicist plot to reduce the world’s population. This theory was taken up and enthusiastically spread this week by an anti-vaccine entrepreneur called Dr Shiva, who claims he invented email. A TV interview with him has been watched six million times in a week.

 また「COVID-19はビル・ゲイツ世界保健機関 (WHO) が主導した、世界にワクチンを接種させ、チップを監視させようとする陰謀に加担している」という陰謀論もある。「Infowars」のアレックス・ジョーンズのような陰謀論者たちは「ゲイツの莫大なワクチン資金は、実は世界の人口を減らすための優生学的陰謀だ」と10年以上主張してきた。この理論は今週、ワクチンに反対する起業家であるシバ博士によって取り上げられ、熱狂的に広まった。シヴァ博士は、電子メールを発明したと主張している。彼とのテレビインタビューは週に600万回も視聴されている。




Now in some ways this is predictable. The pandemic has led to a breakdown in knowledge and certainty. We don’t know much about the virus or the best way of dealing with it, but we know it’s killing a lot of us and we’re afraid. This is happening to the entire human race at the same time, and we’re all connected on the internet.


This is creating a unique opportunity for fringe beliefs and fringe thinkers to take centre stage. Some might be interesting — Universal Basic Income, say — but some really belong back on the fringe. 


I have been disheartened to see leading influencers in my community — that’s to say, western spirituality — spreading the conspiracy theories I mention above. I want my community to be of service to humanity during this crisis, rather than actively spreading bad ideas (particularly anti-vaccine conspiracies — finding a vaccine seems our best hope for getting out of this without 1% of the population, 75 million people, dying of the virus). 


It makes me question the worth of my culture. Is spirituality particularly prone to conspiracy thinking? 



As various New Age influencers have said this week, ‘conspiracy theory’ is a charged term. It can be a way of simply dismissing a topic without considering it.


Some things dismissed as ‘conspiracy theories’ might really have something behind them. UFOs and extra-terrestrials, for example, are dismissed as conspiracy theories, but to me it seems probable there is life on other planets and that some of it is more intelligent than us.




The idea there was a plot behind JFK’s assassination is another ‘conspiracy theory’ which I think may be more than a theory. Child abuse in the Catholic church is another scandal that could have been dismissed as a conspiracy theory when it really was a conspiracy — ie an epidemic of abuse covered up by the Vatican.

 JFK暗殺の裏に陰謀があったという考えは、単なる理論以上の 「陰謀論」 だと私は思う。カトリック教会での児童虐待はまた別のスキャンダルであり、それが本当に陰謀だったとき、つまりバチカンによって隠蔽された虐待の蔓延だったときには、陰謀論として片付けられる可能性があった。

Still, one needs a powerful torch of critical discrimination in these murky and liminal swamp-lands. When you get to Pizzagate, we seem to be very much in the subconscious realm of archetypal, magical thinking — secret symbols and codes, hidden orders of powerful and evil perverts. We are in Dan Brown territory here.

 しかし、このような濁った限界のある湿地帯では、批判的な識別の強力な松明が必要です。「ピザゲート」に至っては、私たちは元型的で魔法のような思考の潜在意識の領域にいるように思えてならない。 - 秘密のシンボルやコード、強力で邪悪な変質者の隠された命令。ここはダン・ブラウンの領域である。



I wondered this week, why should there be an overlap between my community — western spirituality — and conspiracy theories?


My first thought was, there are certain personality traits that make one prone to being ‘spiritual but not religious’ — free thinking, distrust of authority and institutions, a tendency to unusual beliefs or experiences, a tendency to detect ‘hidden’ patterns and correspondences, and an attraction to alternative paradigms, particularly in alternative health — which would all make one more prone to conspiracy theories. 

 私の最初の考えは、「精神的だが宗教的ではない傾向」がある「特定の性格的な特性が存在している」ということでした - 自由な思考、権威と制度への不信、異常な信念や経験への傾向、「隠された」パターンと対応を検出する傾向、そして特に代替医療における代替のパラダイムへの魅力 - それはすべて、陰謀論になりがちです。

There seems to be some evidence for this. This 2018 study by Hart and Graether, from the Journal of Individual Differences, found, in two surveys of 1200 people, that the strongest predictor of conspiracy thinking was ‘schizotypy’, which is a personality trait that makes one prone to unusual beliefs and experiences, such as belief in telepathy, mind-control, spirit-channelling, hidden personal meanings in events etc. People who are ‘spiritual but not religious’ have been found to score more highly in schizoptypal personality traits than both the religious and the non-religious.

 これにはいくつかの証拠があるようです。『Journal of Individual Differences』誌に掲載されたHartとGraetherによる2018年の研究では、1200人を対象とした2つの調査で、陰謀思考の最強の予測因子は「統合失調症傾向(スキゾタイピー)」であり、これはテレパシー、マインドコントロール、スピリチュアルチャネリング、出来事に隠された個人的な意味などの「異常な信念や経験を持ちがちな性格特性」である。「霊的ではあるが宗教的ではない」人々は、宗教的および非宗教的の両方よりも、統合失調症の性格特性でより高いスコアを獲得することがわかっています。



We have to be a little careful here, as there is a risk of tautology. The scientific definition of ‘schizotypal’ basically includes ‘having spiritual beliefs’, so it’s not surprising spiritual people ‘score highly in schizotypy’. So this paper is not really telling us anything other than the sort of people who have spiritual beliefs and experiences are often also into conspiracies. It doesn’t mean they’re wrong or mentally ill. But it may mean they don’t score highly in belief-testing and critical thinking.

 トートロジーのリスクがあるので、ここでは少し注意する必要があります。 「統合失調型」の科学的定義には、基本的に「精神的信念を持っている」が含まれているため、精神的な人々が「統合失調型で高いスコアを獲得する」ことは驚くべきことではありません。 ですから、この論文は、精神的な信念や経験を持っているような人々がしばしば陰謀に巻き込まれていること以外は、実際には何も教えてくれません。 それは「彼らが間違っている」または「精神的に病気である」という意味ではありません。 しかし、それは彼らが信念テストと批判的思考で高得点をとらないことを意味するかもしれません。 


This article found that being into ‘spirituality’ and alternative medicine correlated with being anti-vaccines, while this article found both anti-vaxx attitudes and pro-alternative medicine beliefs were connected to magical thinking. You can be pro-vaxx and into spiritual thinking as well, by the way — Larry Brilliant, the epidemiologist who helped eradicate smallpox, was given his mission by Ram Dass’ guru, Neem Karoli Baba, as he recounts here.

 この記事では、「スピリチュアリティ」と代替医療に取り組むことは、反ワクチンであることと相関していることがわかりました。一方、この記事では、反ワクチンの態度と代替医療の信念の両方が、魔法の思考に関連していることがわかりました。 ちなみに、天然痘の根絶を助けた疫学者のラリー・ブリリアントは、ラム・ダスの教師であるニーム・カロリ・ババから、ここで語られているように、彼の使命を与えられました。





Finally, two important articles from religious studies. The first is a 2011 article by Ward and Voas from the Journal of Contemporary Religion (behind a paywall alas), on what they describe as the surprising new phenomenon of ‘conspirituality’ — the overlap between New Age spirituality and conspiracy thinking. They describe ‘conspirituality’ as

 最後に、宗教学から2つの重要な論文を紹介します。一つ目は『Journal of Contemporary Religion』誌に掲載されたWardとVoasによる2011年の論文である(残念ながら有料)。彼らは、「コンスピリチュアリティ」という驚くべき新しい現象、つまりニューエイジの精神性と陰謀論の重なりについて述べている。彼らは「コンスピリチュアリティ」を次のように説明している。

a rapidly growing web movement expressing an ideology fuelled by political disillusionment and the popularity of alternative worldviews. It has international celebrities, bestsellers, radio and TV stations. It offers a broad politico-spiritual philosophy based on two core convictions, the first traditional to conspiracy theory, the second rooted in the New Age: 1) a secret group covertly controls, or is trying to control, the political and social order, and 2) humanity is undergoing a ‘paradigm shift’ in consciousness. Proponents believe that the best strategy for dealing with the threat of a totalitarian ‘new world order’ is to act in accordance with an awakened ‘new paradigm’ worldview.




This 2015 article, by Egil Apsrem and Asbjorn Dyrendal, responds to Ward and Voas’ article by suggesting ‘conspirituality’ is not a new or surprising phenomenon, but instead emerges from the historical context of the 19th and 20th century ‘occult’. They write:

 この2015年に発表されたEgil ApsremとAsbjorn Dyrendalによる論文は、WardとVoasの論文に対して、「コンスピリチュアリティ」は新しいものでも驚くべき現象でもなく、19世紀と20世紀の「オカルト」の歴史的な文脈から生まれたものであることを示唆している。彼らはこう書いています。


The cultic milieu is flooded with “all deviant belief systems” and their attendant practices. Moreover, the communication channels within the milieu tend to be as open and fluid as the content that flows through them. The resulting lack of an overarching institutionalized orthodoxy enables individuals to “travel rapidly through a variety of movements and beliefs”, thus bridging with ease what may appear on the surface as distinct discourses and practices. Political, spiritual, and (pseudo)scientific discourses all have a home here, and they easily mix. Joined by a common opposition to “Establishment” discourses rather than by positively shared doctrinal content, conspiracy theory affords a common language binding the discourses together.


In other words, the Occult is a Petri dish for the breeding of all sorts of mutant hybrid memes, some of them helpful, some of them toxic (depending on your worldview).



Let me add to this emerging discourse by suggesting that conspirituality theories are a form of mystical or ecstatic experience. I want to compare two forms of mystical experience.


The first is a sort of extroverted euphoric mystical experience: ‘Everything is connected. I am synchronicitously drawn to helpers and allies, the universe is carrying us forward to a wonderful climactic transformation (the Rapture, the Omega Point, the Paradigm Shift) , and we are the divine warriors of light appointed by God / the Universe to manifest this glorious new phase shift in human history.’



The second is a paranoid ‘bad’ trip version of the euphoric ‘good’ trip. ‘Everything is connected, there is a secret order being revealed to me, but I am not part of it. It is an evil demonic order, and it is trying to control me and everyone else. They have a Grand Plan and it is taking shape now. But perhaps I, and one or two others, can wake up to this Grand Plan, and expose it, and at least hide from it.’


The first trip is a euphoric ego-expansion (I am God! I am the Cosmic Universe evolving!) and the second is paranoid ego-persecution (The Universe is controlled by Evil Demons who are against me!)


In both, the individual awakens to this hidden reality. But in the first, they are a superpowered initiate in the hidden order and a catalyst for a Millennarian transformation, in the second they are a vulnerable and disempowered exposer of the powerful hidden order. (Millennarian, by the way, means that, like Robbie Williams, you believe in a coming Millennium, or Age of Love).



These are two sides of the same coin, two sides in the same game. Both are examples of mystical / schizotypal /magical / dream thinking. In both, the ego is part of a grand cosmic drama — in the first, they are the divine appointed catalyst for Phase Shift / humanity’s rebirth, in the second, they are the heroic exposer of the Hidden Order.


William James, father of American psychology, made this point in The Varieties of Religious Experience, where he writes that paranoia is a form of diabolical mysticism, a sort of religious mysticism turned upside down. The same sense of the ineffable importance of the smallest events, the same text and words coming with new meanings, the same voices and visions and leadings and missions, the same controlling by extraneous powers; only this time the emotion is pessimistic: instead of consolations we have desolations; the meanings are dreadful; and the powers are enemies to life.


If we look at the history of the occult (I recommend Gary Lachmann’s Secret Teachers of the Western World as a popular intro), ever since the Reformation there have been secret orders of spiritual-political ecstatic globalists dedicated to a Millennarian project of global transformation. That’s what Renaissance magi were into, and Rosicrucians, and the Masons, and the Illuminati — the foot-soldiers of the Enlightenment were positive conspiracy theorists. So was HG Wells and his ‘Open Conspiracy’— he was supposedly a rationalist, but really he was preaching a sort of occult-scientific polyamorous universalist new religion. So were Theosophists like Annie Besant. So were New Age pioneers in the 1960s like Marilyn Ferguson (author of The Aquarian Conspiracy, one of the best-selling books of the 1980s) and Barbara Marx Hubbard, champion of a globalist evolutionary spirituality. You can probably think of people into this sort of scene today — spiritual-political ecstatic globalists waiting for a golden New Age of global justice, perennial philosophy and polyamorous love.

 オカルトの歴史を見てみると(入門書としてはゲイリー・ラックマンの『西欧諸国の秘密の教師たち』がお勧めです)、宗教改革以来、千年に一度の世界変革プロジェクトに専念する精神的・政治的恍惚としたグローバリストの秘密教団がありました。ルネッサンス期の魔術師や薔薇十字団フリーメイソンイルミナティなど「啓蒙思想の歩兵たち」は積極的な陰謀論者だったのです。H・G・ウェルズの『開かれた陰謀』もそうです。彼は合理主義者のはずですが、実際にはオカルト・科学・多愛・普遍主義の「新宗教のようなもの」を説いていました。アニー・ベサントのような神智学者もそうでした。1960年代のニューエイジの先駆者であるマリリン・ファーガソン(1980年代のベストセラーのひとつである『The Aquarian Conspiracy(水瓶座の陰謀)』の著者)やバーバラ・マークス・ハバード(グローバリストの進化的霊性の擁護者)もそうです。今日、このようなシーンにいる人々を思い浮かべることができるでしょう。世界的な正義、多年にわたる哲学、ポリアモラス(ポリアモニー的)な愛の黄金の新時代を待つ、精神的・政治的な恍惚のグローバリストです。









The Open Conspiracy: What Are We to Do With Our Lives?

※ 『オープンコンスピラシー:世界革命の青写真』は、62歳のH. G.ウェルズによって1928年に公開された。1930年に改訂され、拡張されました。サブタイトル「現代人のこの信仰の第2バージョン」。1931年にさらに改訂版が登場しました。





The Aquarian Conspiracy: Personal and Social Transformation in Our Time (The Tarcher Cornerstone)




※ バーバラ・マルクス・ハバードは、グローバリストのポリアモラスな進化的スピリチュアリティの恍惚とした伝道師であり、「ホモ・ユニバーサリス」という新種の誕生を手助けするよう、神に任命されたと考えていました。彼女は驚くほどの人脈を持っていました。

Globalist Millennarians tend to be quite optimistic (‘we are becoming Gods! We can live forever!’) and quite well-connected — they connect together with fellow globalist Millennarians through think tanks, associations, conferences, networks and festivals. Barbara Marx Hubbard, the indefatigable champion of ‘evolutionary spirituality’, is an example. She thought homo sapiens was about to ‘phase shift’ into homo universalis, on December 12 2012 to be precise, and she thought she and her friends were the divinely-appointed catalysts for this Millennarian transformation. She was extremely well connected and spread her ideas through all kinds of organisations and networks like the Committee for the Future and the Centre for Integral Wisdom. Indeed, networking was part of her spirituality (she called it ‘supra-sexing’.)

 グローバリストのミレニアンは、非常に楽観的で(「私たちは神になる! 永遠に生きることができる!」)、非常に人脈が広く、シンクタンクや協会、会議、ネットワーク、フェスティバルなどを通じて、同じグローバリストのミレニアンとつながりを持つ傾向があります。「進化的スピリチュアリティ」の不屈のチャンピオンであるバーバラ・マルクス・ハバードがその例です。彼女は、正確には2012年12月12日に、ホモ・サピエンスがホモ・ユニバーサリスに「フェーズ・シフト」しようとしていると考え、自分と友人たちが、このミレニアンの変革のために神に任命された触媒であると考えていました。彼女は非常に人脈が広く、コミッティ・フォー・ザ・フューチャーやセンター・フォー・インテグラル・ウィズダムなど、あらゆる組織やネットワークを通じて自分の考えを広めていきました。実際、ネットワーク作りは彼女のスピリチュアリティの一部でした(彼女はそれを「超セックス」と呼んでいました)。


On the other hand, you have paranoid conspiracy thinkers who are anti-globalists, like Infowars’ Alex Jones or evangelical Lee Keith (his book cover is below), who may see ecstatic globalists as an evil and demonic hidden order pulling the strings of global events. Anti-globalist paranoid conspiracy thinkers trace the very networks that ecstatic networkers like Barbara Marx Hubbard work through. ‘See!’, they say. ‘They all know each other through these think-tanks and informal organisations.’


False Dawn: The United Religions Initiative, Globalism, And The Quest For A One-world Religion

※ リー・ペンの『False Dawn』は、バーバラ・マルクス・ハバードのような恍惚としたグローバリストを「悪魔に支配された優生主義者の世界国家エリート」とみなす、偏執的な反グローバリストの陰謀の一例です。この種の陰謀は、マリリン・ファーガソンが1981年に出版した『The Aquarian Conspiracy』のような恍惚としたグローバリストのニューエイジ本への反応として、1990年代以降、アメリカの福音派右派で盛んになりました(1991年のパット・ロバートソンの『New World Order』がその良い例です)。

Where one group are ecstatic, optimistic, super-empowered, insider (and entitled) conspirators, the other are resentful, pessimistic, paranoid, disempowered conspirators. One group think they are an elite evolving into a new God-like species (see for example HG Wells’ ecstatic globalist conspiracy Men Like Gods), the other group thinks this secret elite alien species wants to become Gods and control everyone else (see for example Anthony Forwood’s paranoid conspiracy book They Would Be Gods).



Their thinking styles are in some ways quite similar — schizotypal, magical, prone to seeing secret influences, hidden connections, and Grand Plans. Above all, both over-estimate the competence of elites to control the world . They under-estimate the dumbness of elites and the chaotic cluster-f*ck of actual politics. Both think the elite are superhuman — either divinely-inspired or demonically-controlled.


I think it is possible to be prone to both these forms of magical thinking, to switch between ecstatic, optimistic Millennarianism and paranoid persecutory conspiracy thinking. From ‘everything is connected and I’m a central part of this wonderful cosmic transformation!’’ to ‘everything is connected and I’m at risk from this awful global plot!’ I think someone like Robert Anton Wilson, perhaps, was prone to both sorts of thinking.





Now we can dismiss this sort of thinking as simply bullshit religious enthusiasm. Both forms of it. And I feel a strong tendency at the moment to do that, to simply call bullshit on both ecstatic phase-shifters and paranoid conspiracy theorists, and instead try to be as rationalist, sober and un-enthusiastic as possible.


However, this is probably not a very helpful attitude. There is, in fact, a value to both these forms of mystical thinking.


The value in mystical globalism is it can lead to positive things — HG Wells’ ecstatic globalism helped to inspire forms of global governance like the UN Declaration of Human Rights, for example. You need a bit of cosmic optimism to try and get anything changed.


However, ecstatic globalism can lead to self-entitlement, to an inflated sense that you are the appointed vanguard of humanity, and that history and the Universe is definitely on your side. That’s dangerous. There can be a dangerous over-concentration of privilege and power, working mainly through informal or undemocratic channels.


The value of conspiracy thinking, meanwhile, can be that it holds power to account. Power can be over-concentrated — the World Health Organisation is excessively reliant on funding by Bill Gates, and the Gates Foundation should be more transparent and accountable, considering the massive influence it has over global public health.


Scientific authority can be awfully, horribly wrong sometimes — many ecstatic globalists in the 20th century really did support eugenics ( including HG Wells, Annie Besant, Julian Huxley, Alexis Carrel and Teillard de Chardin). They thought the world should be run by an elite of spiritually enlightened scientists who would decide who was enlightened and who was ‘unfit’ and therefore deserved to be sterilized, locked up, or exterminated. There was no secret conspiracy about this — they proudly declared their opinions. So you can see why paranoid anti-globalists might have their suspicions of secret eugenic plots today.






In general (and in conclusion), there is a value in non-rational forms of knowing, such as dreams, intuitions, inspiration and mystical experiences. These can be important sources of wisdom and healing. Many great scientific discoveries and cultural creations have come from ecstatic or schizotypal inspiration, from Newton’s discovery of gravity to Milton’s Paradise Lost.



I am prone to this sort of ‘benign schizotypy’ myself, and on the whole it enriches my life and work. There is a reason schizotypal thinking has survived for millennia — sometimes it is highly adaptive. It has played an important role in our cultural evolution.



However, it is crucial to balance the capacity for ecstatic / magical / mythical thinking with the capacity for critical thinking. That’s what I’ve tried to do in my books: balance the Socratic and the ecstatic, or the left and right brain, if you’re into that sort of thing.


Too much Socratic thinking without any ecstasy, and you end up with a rather dry and uninspiring worldview. Too much ecstasy without critical thinking, and you may be prone to unhealthy delusions, which you then spread, harming others. You may be so sure you’re right, so hyped in your heroic crusade, you may block things that are really helpful and spread things that are really harmful.


One should be free to believe whatever you want, but in this instance — a global pandemic in the internet age — our beliefs and behaviours profoundly impact others. We need to try and be extra careful in what we believe and what we share, so as to practice mental hygiene.


There is so much fake news out there — I was taken in yesterday by a story that the IMF had cancelled almost all its developing country debt. The story was on a website called IMF2020.org (since taken down). It looked totally reliable. And I so wanted it to be true! I so wanted to share some good news. But alas, it was fake.


We can do a basic test, equivalent to washing our hands.


1) What’s the source? Is it a reliable media organisation? Is it backed up by other reliable sources?

1) ソースは何ですか?それは信頼できるメディア組織ですか?他の信頼できる情報源によって裏付けられていますか?

2) How likely is the fact? The less likely, the greater the burden of evidence.

2) それが事実の可能性は?可能性が低ければ低いほど、証拠の負担は大きくなります。 

3) Is there anything out there suggesting it’s fake? Rather than looking for evidence to support our beliefs, can we search for evidence against our beliefs?


4) Can we emotionally accept our belief might be wrong?

4) 自分の信念が間違っているかもしれないことを感情的に受け入れることができるか?

We can try to practice that sort of mental hygiene on ourselves, but how does one practice effective public communication to counter-act conspiracy thinking? It seems very hard. One’s instinct can be, like Skeptics and New Atheists, simply to call the other side names: ‘idiot, moron, woo-woo, bullshit’ and so on. That sort of shaming probably doesn’t work.


The introduction to the European Journal of Social Psychology’s special ‘conspiracy theory’ issue suggests conspiracy theories are emotionally grounded and socially supported— so an outsider calling you names won’t have much impact. Instead, like de-radicalization or de-culting programmes, perhaps it takes a trusted friend from inside your network to challenge the beliefs in a sympathetic and non-threatening way. That is slow work when one in five Brits say they might not take a COVID-19 vaccine, and even superpowers are trading rival theories as to how the virus emerged. Our herd immunity to bullshit may be breaking down.

 『European Journal of Social Psychology』誌の「陰謀論」特集号の序文によると、「陰謀論は感情的な根拠に基づいており、社会的に支持されているため、部外者が陰謀論信者を罵倒してもあまり効果はありません」とのことです。その代わり、脱過激派プログラムや脱カルトプログラムのように、ネットワーク内の信頼できる友人が、共感を持って脅威にならない方法で信念に挑戦する必要があるのかもしれません。英国人の5人に1人が「COVID-19」のワクチンを受けないかもしれないと言い、超大国でさえウイルスの発生方法について対立する理論を交わしているのだから、これは時間のかかる仕事です。私たちのデタラメに対する集団免疫は崩壊しつつあるのかもしれません。










「Philosophy for Life」などの著書がある。


「Centre for the History of the Emotions(感情史センター)」名誉研究員。 













※ 無駄に音楽マニアになってしまいました。



※ もちろん、これだけでもないですが。















※ だから「仏陀を師匠としている」わけです。